The Biomechanics Laboratories include an overhead swinging pendulum laboratory capable of speeds up to 12 m/s with mini-sled apparatus on linear precision bearings with 3-m run-out. Materials testing laboratory has one electrohydraulic piston apparatus with a 25 cm stroke and dynamic capabilities, and a second piston with dual motion (rotation and vertical) capabilities for smaller construct evaluations. Six high-intensity lights (4 kW each). Data Acquisition System (TDAS, Diversified Technical Systems, Seal Beach, CA), 128 channels at 12.5 kz/channel sample rate. Both data acquisition systems have pre-amplifiers and antialiasing filters. Vicon motion analysis system with nine high resolution cameras (Vicon Corp., Oxford Metrice, Oxford, England), capable of measuring sub-millimeter motions and angulations. Five Phantom (Vision Research Inc., Wayne, NJ) digital video cameras capable of imaging at 1,000 to 10,000 frames/second. Kodak high-speed video camera system capable of up to 4,500 full frames/second and a high-speed, high-resolution digital video camera capable of 1,000 frames/second data acquisition. Motion Analysis Corp., four-camera, 3-D high-resolution motion tracking system. Hybrid III ATD with force and acceleration transducers. Force, displacement, and acceleration transducers, Kistler 3-axis force plate, Denton 6-axis force transducers, 3-axis motion transducer, Endevco and Entran accelerometers. Heavy-duty cryomicrotome device with electronic control (Leica Inc., Deerfield, IL).
Portable x-ray machine and C-arm x-ray. Pure-moment testing rig capable of applying pure moments to spinal motion segments, cervical spines, or intact head-neck complexes, measuring six axis forces and moments, and three-dimensional kinematics. Vicon motion analysis system with six high resolution cameras (Vicon Corp., Oxford Metrice, Oxford, England), capable of measuring sub-millimeter motions and angulations.